Diesel Fuel is a liquid product used as fuel in a diesel internal combustion engines. Generally, this term is referred to fuels obtained from kerosene/gas-oil fractions from direct petroleum distillation.
The name "automotives gas-oil" comes from the German Solaröl - «solar oil" – that was how a heavier fraction produced during the distillation of petroleum was called as far back as 1857. The fraction was so named due to its yellowish color. The Soviet oil refining industry produced a product "Diesel oil GOST 1666-42 and GOST 1666-51".
The main consumers of diesel fuel are railroad transport, freight transport, water transport, military equipment, diesel generators, agricultural machinery and diesel passenger vehicles. Beside diesel engines, residual diesel fuel (diesel oil) is often used as a boiler fuel, for impregnating leathers, in cooling lubricants and quenching fluids, in mechanical and thermal treatment of metals.
They differentiate between low viscosity distillate for high-speed, and high viscosity, the residual, for slow-speed (tractor, ship, and other stationary.) engines. The distillate consists of a hydrotreated kerosene/gas-oil fractions of direct distillation and up to 1/5 of the catalytic cracking and coking gas oils. Viscous oil for low speed engines is a mixture of fuel oil with kerosene/gas-oil fractions. The heat of combustion of diesel fuel averages at 42624 kJ/kg (10,180 kcal/kg).
In general, diesel fuel used for diesel engines must comply with the requirements set forth in the Interstate Standard GOST 32511-2013 (EN 590:2009) and obligatory for use as of January 1, 2015.
Diesel fuel used for high-speed diesel and gas turbine engines of terrestrial and marine equipment, as well as that designed for export, should meet the requirements set forth in the Interstate Standard GOST 305-2013 "Diesel Fuel. Specifications "(introduced to replace GOST 305-82) and mandatory for use beginning January 1, 2015.
Sampling of diesel fuel to evaluate its quality is carried out in accordance with the GOST Standard 2517-2012 "Oil and Petroleum Products".
Summer Diesel Fuel
Summer diesel fuel: density: not more than 840 kg/m³. Flash-point: 62°C. Pour point: −5°C. It is obtained by mixing directly distilled, hydrotreated hydrocarbon fractions and those of derived origin with a boiling point of 180-340°C. Growth in the final boiling point will cause intense coking of nozzles and smokiness.
Winter Diesel Fuel
Winter diesel fuel: density: no more than 840 kg/m³. Flash-point: 104,00°C. Pour point: −35°C. It is produced by way of mixing directly distilled, hydrotreated hydrocarbon fractions and those of derived origin with a boiling point of 180-340°C. Also, winter diesel fuel is produced by adding pour point depressant to summer diesel fuel, which reduces the pour point temperature of the fuel, but has little effect on the cold filter plugging point. Using homemade methods, they add up to 20% of TS-1 or KO kerosene to summer diesel fuel - performance then does not change substantially.
Arctic Diesel Fuel
Arctic diesel fuel: density: no more than 830 kg/m³. Flash-point: 35°C. Pour point: −55°C. It is produced by way of mixing directly distilled, hydrotreated hydrocarbon fractions and those of derived origin with a boiling point of 180-320°C. The boiling range correspond to about that of kerosene fractions, therefore that fuel is, in fact, a weighted kerosene. However, pure kerosene has low cetane rating of 35-40 and insufficient lubricating properties (strong wear of high pressure fuel pump). To eliminate those problems in arctic fuels, they add cetane improver additives and mineral engine oil to improve lubricity. A more expensive method of producing arctic diesel fuel is dewaxing of summer diesel fuel.